An ionic bond results from the electrostatic attraction of ions with opposite charges, that is, one strongly electropositive (with low ionization energy) and the other strongly electronegative (with high electronic affinity). A covalent bond is one that occurs between atoms that share their last level electrons to form a stable octet; This type of bond occurs when the electronegativity difference between the atoms is not very high.
What is an Ionic bond?
Ionic bond is a type of bond produced by the presence of an electrostatic attraction between ions of different signs, that is, one positive and one negative. This causes that in the bond, one of the atoms captures the electrons of the last layer of the other atom. The electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions causes their union and the formation of a simple chemical compound.
For this type of bond to be generated, it is necessary that the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.7 or equal.
Among the characteristics of the compounds with ionic bonds are:
- They have the ability to remain in a solid-state when at room temperature.
- Its structure is crystalline or transparent.
- They have high melting and boiling points.
- They result from the interaction between the metals of groups I and II and the non-metals of groups VI and VII of the periodic table.
- They are soluble in water.
- They conduct electricity when dissolved in water.
What is Covalent bond?
A covalent bond occurs between two atoms that join together to form a stable octet, sharing their electrons from the last level.
This bond occurs when the electronegativity difference between the atoms is not high enough to produce an ionic bond.
A covalent bond occurs when the electronegativity difference between the atoms is less than 1.7.
Among the characteristics of this type of link we have:
- Low melting and boiling temperatures.
- Under normal conditions, they can be solid, liquid, or gaseous.
- They are soft in a solid-state.
- They act as insulators from electrical current and heat.
- Polar molecules are only soluble in polar solvents.
- Nonpolar molecules are soluble in nonpolar solvents.
suggested video: an ionic bond and a covalent bond
Difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond
- Ionic bonding occurs when two atoms have an electronegativity difference greater than 1.7. One of the atoms takes one of the electrons from the outer shell of the other atom, that is, the metallic ion loses an electron, and the non-metallic ion gains the electron.
- In a covalent bond, the two atoms come together to share an electron. There is a balance between the forces of attraction and repulsion. It occurs in atoms that have an electronegativity difference of less than 1.7.