Biology

Types of pathogens with examples

Types of Pathogens and examples
types of pathogens

Pathogens are the disease that causes germs. Common  types of pathogens are given in the given list:

  1. Viruses
  2. Bacteria
  3. Fungi
  4. Protozoa
  5. Parasitic worms
  6. prion

1) Food Spoilage

  • Microorganisms are associated in a variety of ways with the food we eat. They may spoil the quality, availability, and even the quality of our food.
  • Food serves as a medium for their growth.
  • This growth causes food lo to undergo decomposition and spoilage.
  • Some disease-producing microorganisms release some toxic products which get into our food and cause food poisoning if we eat it.

PREVENTION

  • For the protection of food from microbial contamination and spoilage, it can he be preserved by the following methods.
  1. Prevention of contamination
  2. The killing of microorganisms by

  a- boiling b- exposing to steam under pressure c- Pasteurization d- by radiation iii. Preventing microbial growth and slowing down their metabolism by

  1. low-temperature refrigeration
  2. dehydration
  3. chemicals
  4. using of the solution of brine or sugar syrups
  5. pasteurization

2) DAMAGE TO PAPER AND TEXTILES PRODUCTS

  • Microorganisms not only spoil the foods but also other products like paper and textile products and thus cause great loss.
  • They produce slime or paper, may stain or discolor it or weaken its fiber.
  • This causes loss to the paper industry.
  • Another example is the spoilage of cotton. wool and plans by micro-organisms especially the fungal molds.
  • Fungi are very harmful as they spoil paintings by forming spots and by discoloration.
  • Antifungal agents are, therefore, often mixed in paints.

Describe some common diseases caused by fungal pathogens? SOME COMMON DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGAL PATHOGENS ATHLETE’S FOOT Cause Athlete toot is a skin infection caused by a fungus called tinea. Epidemiology This disease spreads from person to person contact or by infected objects like towels. Symptoms

  • It most commonly occurs between the toes, where it causes the skin to flake and crack.
  • Occasionally, it can spread across the foot and cause quite a had skin damage.

Control

  • The athlete’s foot gets its name because it is most likely to occur on feet which have been confined inside sweaty shoes and is most likely to be picked up from floors of communal showers and swimming baths.

 

  • Washing these floors with disinfectant will reduce the risk of people catching the disease.
  • The best way to avoid it is good foot hygiene making sure that your shoes are large enough to allow your feet to “breathe” by changing your socks regularly and by washing and drying your feet thoroughly.

 

  1. RINGWORM

Cause This is an infection of the skin caused by a group of fungi, the ringworm fungi. Epidemiology. This disease is widespread and although it seldom becomes serious, it is very irritating and looks ugly. Symptoms

  • The fungi on attacking the skin cause localized lesions in the skin.
  • Lesions assume circular form as the growth of the fungus in the skin is more or less equal in all directions. .
  • The fungus lives in the epidermis and causes infection in the drier parts of the skin.

Control

  • This ringworm infection can be cured by the external application of certain fungicide ointments.
  • Good sanitary conditions in barber’s shops, gymnasia, shower rooms, and swimming pools plus personal cleanliness are effective in limiting this infection.

   Describe some common diseases caused by pathogenic worms?

SOME COMMON DISEASES CAUSED BY PATHOGENIC WORMS

  1. THREAD WORMS

Causes

  • Threadworm infection (Enterobiasis) is caused by threadworm, which are whitish or colorless and develop in the intestine of children.
  • The worm is small in size and narrows at both ends. •

Symptoms

  • The patient suffering from this infection feels uneasy and restless due to inflammation and irritation in the perennial region.
  • Children carrying threadworms can not sleep comfortably at right.

Epidemiology

  • The infection is carried to other individuals through dirty lesions and contamination of food and air.

Control.

  • The disease can be prevented by maintaining proper cleanliness, trimming the nails regularly and washing hands before taking meals.

 

  1. FLAT WORM (liver fluke)

Cause

  • Fascida hepatica (liver fluke) is a parasite in the liver and bile duct of sheep, goats, and cattle.
  • It causes a disease known as the liver rot.
  • Sometimes it is also found in the human liver.

Symptoms

  • Liver fluke seriously affects the liver of sheep and its functions are upset.

 

  • The animal becomes weak and young sheep die in large numbers.

Epidemiology

  • The disease spread through faeces and dirty food and is secondary hosts i.e. snails.

Control

  • To prevent the spread of disease, the infected sheep can be treated effectively with

Hexachloroe thane or phenothiazine which destroys most of the flukes.

  • The parasites can also be destroyed by the killing of the snail which is its secondary hosts.
  1. ROUNDWORM

  • The nematodes are called roundworms. They have cylindrical bodies with glistening smooth surfaces.
  • Ascaris lumbricoides is a cosmopolitan parasite in the small intestine of man, lying freely in the lumen.
  • They may cause abdominal discomfort and colic pain.

Symptom

  • In children, where the infection is more commons they dull the mental capacity and stunt the growth.
  • Their juveniles cause hemorrhage in the lungs, which results in pneumonia

Epidemiology

  • It is found is pigs and cattle.

Control

  • The personal hygiene, proper disposal of human faeces and thoroughly washed and properly cooked food and vegetables are key to control its infection.

 

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