Biology

All Branches of Biology and their Definitions

10 Branches of Biology

Cytology or cell-biology (Gr: Kytos = hollow vessel or cell): The study of structure, function, and composition of cell and cell organless is called cytology or cell biology.

Branches of Biology
Branches of Biology

Physiology (Gr: Phusis = Nurture): it is the study of functions of different parts of living organisms.

Ecology (Gr: Oikos = home): it is the study of relationships of living organisms with each other and with their non-living environments. it is also called environmental biology.

Embryology (Gr: Embryon = Embryo) or developmental biology: it is the study of progressive developmental changes which occur after zygote formation up to organisms is formed.

taxonomy (Gr: Taxis = arrangement or grouping; Noms = laws related to naming): it deals with descriptions identification classification and scientific naming of living organisms according to their similarities and dissimilarities.

Genetics (Gr: Genesis = origin): it deals with the study of inheritance including the transmission of heredity character from parents to their offspring.

paleontology (Gr: Palaios = ancient, ontos = being organisms): it is the study of animals and plants that lived in remote past and are now found as fossils in the racks. it can be further divided into two branches i.e. paleontology; study of plants fossils, palaeontology; study of animal fossils.

Biochemistry: it deals with the chemistry and chemical aspects of the living system.

Microbiology (Micro = very small): it deals with the study of microscope organisms such as viruses and bacteria, etc.

Biotechnology: it is the manipulation of living things (animals, plants, microorganisms) for the welfare of mankind. recently methods of genetic engineering have brought about a revolution in this field. by using these techniques not only yogurt, cheese, bread, insulin, antibiotics, etc. are being produced but a number of diseases are cured.

 

Describe the relationship of biology with other branches of science.

Relationship of biology with other science
1. biochemistry
a complete branch of chemistry that requires a firm knowledge of biology and chemistry to explain the synthesis of bio-molecule, their requirement, and the effect caused by the deficiency and efficiency of different molecules on the organisms and their metabolism.

2. biophysics
branch of physics where we apply laws and techniques of physics to explain the metabolism of living organisms, to find out the age of fossils, etc.

one of the sub-branches of biophysics is radio-physics, where radioactive isotopes are used to trace the translocation of different material “in vivo” within the living organism. radiolabeling and carbon dating also slow some uses of radioactive isotopes in determining the age of fossils. use of sound waves as ultrasound and laser technology shows some relationship of physics with biology.

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