chemistry

Covalent Bond and Ionic Bond

Difference between covalent bond and Ionic Bond
Covalent bond Vs Ionic Bond

Molecules and compounds are always formed by different types of bonds. These can be distinguished between ionic and covalent bonds. Thanks to these bonds, the atoms join each other and give rise to more complex formations. This union is possible through chemical bonds of attraction. The difference between Covalent bond and Ionic Bond is provided here.

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The ionic bond is one that occurs between atoms that are different. One atom is a metal and the other is a nonmetal. This type of chemical bonding between atoms occurs, then, when an atom gives one of its electrons to another atom. In this way, one suffers a loss of electrons and the other again.

The covalent bond, on the other hand, occurs between atoms that are similar. In this case, the atoms do not give up electrons but rather share them. That is to say that, unlike the ionic bond, in the covalent, there is no loss or gain. In this way, the atoms achieve equilibrium by joining each other through an attractive force.

The ionic bond can be metallic or non-metallic. The metallic is one in which there is a loss of an electron from the atom that has a positive charge, in the non-metallic the atom that receives the electron has a negative charge. In this way, the attraction between opposite charges is demonstrated. Covalent, on the other hand, are classified differently than ionic ones. A covalent bond can be triple, double, or single. This depends on the number of electrons that are shared between the atoms. For example, if an atom has an excess electron in its last level, another atom will take that electron and they will share it between them to be in balance.

Ionic compounds, unlike covalent ones, usually have a solid form. They are also characterized by their solubility in water and their high capacity to conduct electricity. Likewise, it is always emphasized that an ionic bond is not always ionic, this is because generally there is always a sharing of electrons in some part of a compound.

Covalent Bond Vs Ionic Bond

Here is a brief summary of the differences between ionic and covalent bonds, their properties, and how to recognize them:

Ionic bondsCovalent bonds
DescriptionThe bond between the metal and non-metal. Nonmetal attracts electrons, so this is how metal donates its electron to it.The bond between two non-metallic elements with similar electronegativities. Atoms share electrons in their outer orbitals.
PolarityTallLow
ShapeNo definite shapeDefinite shape
Melting pointTallLow
Boiling pointTallLow
State at room temperatureSolidLiquid or gas
ExamplesSodium Chloride (NaCl), Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 )Methane (CH 4 ), Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Chemical speciesMetal and non-metal (remember hydrogen can work both ways)two non-metals
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