chemistry

Metal oxides

Metal oxides (also known as basic oxides ) are compounds that originate from the combination of metal and oxygen, with the particularity of being linked by a bond called ionic. In this post, you’ll learn Examples of metal oxides.

They generally have the characteristic of being solid and having a relatively high melting point (this is precisely what is typical for them, differing from non-metallic oxides that have a much lower one).

Metal oxides are usually crystalline and at least moderately soluble in water. Metal oxides are good conductors of heat and electricity, which is why it is common to use them for these purposes.

In its composition, metal oxides are binary combinations of a metal with oxygen, with the latter acting with an oxidation number -2. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the valences of the metal that intervenes in the reaction together with oxygen, to have a notion of how many atoms of the element will be necessary to exchange for each oxygen atom.

  • See also: Oxidation Examples

Nomenclature of metal oxides

Oxides of this type have a particularity with regard to their denomination since it is not easy to put a name to each one since the same substances sometimes have different oxidation numbers. In the event that the element complementary to oxygen has a single oxidation number, the traditional way of calling it will be ‘oxide of (and the corresponding element)’.

When the element has two oxidation numbers, it will be named oxide (and the corresponding element, with the ending ‘ bear ‘ if the oxidation number used is less, and ‘ ico ‘ when the number is greater). Finally, if the element has more than two oxidation numbers (it can have up to four), the number of valences is observed and, according to this, the ending –ico, -oso, hipo-oso, or perico is added. This is the traditional nomenclature, however, there are alternatives such as the stock number or atomicity.

Examples of basic or metallic oxides

  1. Cuprous oxide ( Cu 2 O ). This copper oxide is insoluble in water and organic solvents.
  2. Cupric oxide ( CuO ). It is the copper oxide with the highest oxidation number. As a mineral, it is known as tenorite.
  3. Cobalt oxide (CoO).  It is an inorganic monoxide with an olive green or reddish appearance in its crystalline form.
  4. Auric oxide ( Au 2 O 3 ). It is the most stable oxide in gold. It has a brownish-red color and is insoluble in water.
  5. Titanium oxide ( TiO 2 ) . It is naturally found in some minerals, in spherical form. It is inexpensive, safe, and abundant.
  6. Zinc oxide ( Z n O ). It is a white compound, also known as the white zinc compound. It is poorly soluble in water but very soluble in acids.
  7. Nickel oxide ( Ni 2 O 3 ). It is a compound of nickel (it has 77% nickel in its composition). It is also known as black nickel oxide.
  8. Silver oxide ( Ag 2 O ). This compound is a fine black or brown powder, which is used to prepare other silver compounds.
  9. Mercuric oxide ( HgO ). Also, Mercury (II) oxide is a compound that has an orange or red color, it appears in a solid-state at room temperature.
  10. Chromic oxide ( CrO ). It is an inorganic compound of chromium and oxygen.
  11. Barium oxide ( BaO ).
  12. Chromic oxide ( Cr 2 O 3 ). It is an inorganic compound that is used as a pigment, chromium green.
  13. Plumbous oxide ( PbO ). With an orange color, it is frequently used in ceramics and in the chemical industry.
  14. Permanganic oxide.
  15. Ferrous oxide ( FeO )
  16. Ferric oxide ( Fe 2 O 3 )
  17. Calcium oxide ( CaO )
  18. Lithium oxide ( Li 2 O ). 
  19. Stannous oxide ( SnO ).
  20. Stannic oxide ( SnO2 ).

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