# Physics: Main Branches of Physics

## What is Physics?

The word “Physics” comes from the Greek word “Physikos” meaning “natural”. Physics is defined as a science which deals with the interaction of matter and energy.

Physics helps to get the answers of queries as to:

**I. Where and how clouds are formed?**

**ii. How lightning flashes in the clouds?**

**iii. Why some objects catch fire and others do not?**

**iv. What is the nature of heat? How is it produced?**

**v. How matter appears ¡n different states?**

## 7 MAIN BRANCHES OF PHYSICS

Main branches of physics are given below:

**1. Mechanics**: It deals with the motion of objects with or without reference to force.

**2. Electricity:** It ¡s Concerned with the phenomena and effects related to electric charges.

**3.** **Electromagnetism**: It deals with observations, principles, laws, and methods that relate

electricity and magnetism.

**4**. **Solid State Physics**: It ¡s concerned with the structure and properties of solid materials.

**5. Atomic Physics**: It is concerned with the structure and properties of solid material.

**6. Nuclear physics**: this branch is concerned with the structure arid properties of the atom.

**7. Plasma Physics**: It ¡s concerned with the properties of highly ionized atoms forming a mixture

of bare nuclei (nuclei without electrons) and electrons.

**8. Biophysics**: It is concerned with the application of physical methods and explanations to biophysical systems and structure.

**9. Astrophysics**: It is concerned with the study of the physics of astronomical bodies.

In addition to these branches also there are other branches, say low-temperature physics,

particle physics, optics, etc.)

### IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICS IN DAILY LIFE

Physics is involved in one way or the other, physics is playing a vital in framing our lifestyle and influencing our way of thinking.

**1. Electrical appliances**

We use several electrical appliances. For example, electric fan, electric bulb, refrigerator, air conditioner, juicer, grinder, etc. they all use “electricity”.

**2: Engines**

Busses, cars, railway carriages, airplanes, etc. are run by engines. The engine of these vehicles are manufactured on the principles of “thermodynamics”.

**3: Electronic Devices**

We listen to radio programmers and telecast from TV stations. In all electronic devices and

Appliances “solid-state physics” plays a vital role.

**4: Laser Technology**

Laser technology is widely used in defense systems, metallurgy, medical science, and astronomy which has its roots in “atomic physics”.

**5:Nuclear Physics**

Production of nuclear energy is the area of “nuclear physics”

And Many more fields……

### List of Physics Articles

**Mechanics****Kinematics**- Motion and its type
- Distance and displacement Differences
- Speed and Velocity with comparison table
- Acceleration and its types
- Three Equations of motion
- The motion of a Freefall
- Projectile motion

**Dynamics****I**: Force- Forces with Types
- Force and mass
- Action-reaction
- Weight
- Dynamics
- Friction and its types
- Forces in two dimensions
- Centripetal force formula
- Centrifugal force
- Difference between centripetal force and centrifugal force
- The inertial and non-inertial frame of reference

**Energy**- Work and its formula
- Energy and its types
- Kinetic energy with examples
- Potential energy with examples
- Conservation of energy derivation
- Power and its equation
- Simple machines with examples

**Dynamics II**: Momentum- Relation between Impulse and momentum
- Conservation of momentum Examples
- Momentum and energy relation

**Rotational motion**- Rotational kinematics
- Rotational inertia with examples
- Rotational dynamics With examples
- Angular momentum with formula
- Rotational energy and its formula
- Rolling

**Planetary motion**- Geocentrism theory
- Heliocentrism theory
- Universal gravitational Law
- Gravitational potential energy formula
- The gravity of extended bodies

**Periodic motion**- Springs
- Simple harmonic motion with examples
- Simple Pendulum
- Resonance and its examples
- Elasticity and its Examples

**Fluids**- Density formula
- Pressure formula
- Buoyancy force
- Fluid flow
- Viscosity examples
- Drag force
- Pascal law
- Archimedes principle
- Bernoulli Equation
- Equation of continuity

**Thermal physics****Heat and temperature**- Temperature and its scales
- Difference between heat and temperature
- Thermal expansion examples and applications
- Gas laws
- Kinetic-molecular theory

**Calorimetry**- Sensible heat
- Latent heat of fusion and vaporization

**Heat transfer**- Conduction heat transfer
- Convection heat transfer
- Radiation heat transfer

**Thermodynamics**- Heat and work
- Heat Engines
- Refrigerators
- Examples of entropy
- Absolute zero

**Waves and optics****Wave phenomena**- The nature of waves and their properties
- Periodic waves examples
- Interference and superposition

**Sound Waves**- The nature of sound
- Intensity of sound
- Doppler effect and its cases
- Shock waves examples
- Diffraction and interference differences
- Standing waves examples
- Beats
- Music and noise comparison

**Physical optics**- The nature of light
- Polarization examples
- Doppler effect (light)
- Diffraction and interference (light)
- Interference Of light
- Colors and their types

**Geometric optics**- Reflection of light
- Refraction of light
- Spherical mirrors uses
- Spherical lenses types and applications
- Aberration and its types

**Electricity and magnetism****Electrostatics**- Electric charge and its Types
- Coulomb’s law formula
- Electric field and electric field lines
- Electric potential formula
- Gauss’s law and its applications
- Conductors and insulators
- Difference between emf and potential difference

**Electrostatic applications**- Types of Capacitors
- Dielectric materials
- Types of Batteries

**Current Electricity**- Electric current formula
- Electrical resistance
- Electric power and its formula

**DC circuits**- Types of Resistors in circuits
- Types of Batteries in circuits
- Capacitors in circuits
- Kirchhoff’s rules

**Magnetostatics**- Magnetism
- Electromagnetism and its applications
- Ampère’s law formula
- Electromagnetic force

**Magnetodynamics**- Electromagnetic induction and its applications
- Faraday’s law of induction
- Lenz’ law of induction
- Inductance

**AC circuits**- Alternating current
- RC circuits
- RL circuits
- LC circuits

**Electromagnetic waves**- Maxwell’s equations
- Electromagnetic waves
- Electromagnetic spectrum

**Modern physics****Relativity**- Space-time
- Mass-energy
- General relativity

**Quanta**- Blackbody radiation
- Photoelectric effect
- X-rays
- Antimatter

**Wave mechanic**s- Matter waves
- Atomic models
- Semiconductors
- Condensed matter

**Nuclear physics**- Isotopes
- Radioactive decay
- Half life
- Binding energy
- Fission
- Fusion
- Nucleosynthesis
- Nuclear weapons
- Radiobiology

**Particle physics**- Quantum electrodynamics
- Quantum chromodynamics
- Quantum flavordynamics
- The Standard Model
- Beyond the Standard Model

**Foundations****Units**- International system of units
- Gaussian system of units
- British-American system of units
- Miscellaneous units
- Time
- Unit conversion

**Measurement**- Significant digits
- Order of magnitude

**Vectors**- Trigonometry
- Vector addition and subtraction
- Vector resolution and components
- Vector multiplication