Biology

Difference between Prokaryotes Vs Eukaryotes

The cell is the morphological and functional unit that makes up all living beings. These morphological units are divided into two large groups according to their structure: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. or also called ‘prokaryotes’ or ‘eukaryotes’.

Both terms,  prokaryotic and eukaryotic, are due to E. Chatton and began to be used in the early 1950s. But in order to understand the different types of cells and their divisions, it is essential to know their definition.

Definition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

A prokaryote is a word with Greek roots that means “before the nut” referring to the cell nucleus. As the name implies, prokaryotic cells are organisms without nuclei or structures defined by membranes. Most prokaryotes are unicellular but some are multicellular.

The word eukaryote also comes from the Greek, and means “true nut”, indicating the presence of the nucleus in the cell, defined by a membrane. Cells of animalsplants, and fungi are of this type.

Structure of prokaryotic cells

The prokaryotic cells structurally are the most simple and small. Like all cells, they are delimited by a plasma membrane that contains inward folds ( invaginations ), some of which are called lamellae, and another is called mesosome and is related to cell division.

The prokaryotic cell outside the membrane is surrounded by a cell wall that provides protection.

How are they inside? Cytoplasm

The interior of the cell is called the cytoplasm. In the center, it is possible to find a denser region, called the nucleoid, where the genetic material or DNA is found. In other words, DNA is not separated from the rest of the cytoplasm and is associated with the mesosome.

In the cytoplasm, there are also ribosomes, which are structures that have the function of making proteins. They can be free or forming groups called polyribosomes.

Structure of eukaryotic cells

The eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic cells and are mainly found in multicellular organisms.

The cell is the morphological and functional unit that makes up all living beings. These morphological units are divided into two large groups according to their structure: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. or also called ‘prokaryotes’ or ‘eukaryotes’.

Both terms,  prokaryotic and eukaryotic, are due to E. Chatton and began to be used in the early 1950s. But in order to understand the different types of cells and their divisions, it is essential to know their definition.

Definition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

A prokaryote is a word with Greek roots that means “before the nut” referring to the cell nucleus. As the name implies, prokaryotic cells are organisms without nuclei or structures defined by membranes. Most prokaryotes are unicellular but some are multicellular.

The word eukaryote also comes from the Greek, and means “true nut”, indicating the presence of the nucleus in the cell, defined by a membrane. Cells of animalsplants, and fungi are of this type.

Structure of prokaryotic cells

The prokaryotic cells structurally are the most simple and small. Like all cells, they are delimited by a plasma membrane that contains inward folds ( invaginations ), some of which are called lamellae, and another is called mesosome and is related to cell division.

The prokaryotic cell outside the membrane is surrounded by a cell wall that provides protection.

How are they inside? Cytoplasm

The interior of the cell is called the cytoplasm. In the center, it is possible to find a denser region, called the nucleoid, where the genetic material or DNA is found. In other words, DNA is not separated from the rest of the cytoplasm and is associated with the mesosome.

In the cytoplasm, there are also ribosomes, which are structures that have the function of making proteins. They can be free or forming groups called polyribosomes.

Structure of eukaryotic cells

The eukaryotic cells are generally larger than prokaryotic cells and are mainly found in a multicellular organisms. Eukaryotic cells also contain other organelles in addition to the nucleus. An organelle is a structure within the cytoplasm that performs specific work in the cell.

Organelles called mitochondria, for example, provide energy to the cell, and organelles called vacuole substances are stored in the cell. These allow eukaryotic cells to perform more functions than prokaryotic cells can. Therefore, it is said that eukaryotic cells have a higher specificity than prokaryotic cells. .

Difference between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell in tabular form

(i)Prokaryotic cellEukaryotic cell
1)Nuclear membrane is absent so they do not

have a distinct nucleus.

1)A double nuclear membrane is present so they

have a distinct nucleus.

2)They do not have many of the membrane-bound

structures.

2)They have membrane-bound structures or

organelles in theirs.

3)The cell membrane is present.3)the cell membrane is present.
4)DNA is in a naked form.4)DNA is in the chromosome.
5)Ribosomes are of smaller size and are freely

scattered in the cytoplasm.

5)Ribosomes are of larger size and are present

either attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or

freely suspended in the cytoplasm.

6)Cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan cell

mucin. Cellulose is absent.

6)The cell wall of plant cells is composed of cellulose.
7)

 

The organisms made of prokaryotic cells are

called prokaryotes.

7)The organisms made of eukaryotic cells are

called eukaryotes.

8)Example: bacteria, cyanobacteria.8)Example: algae, fungi. Animals, plants,

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