Education is the key driver of scientific advances. Ancient Greece, where the birth of the scientific contributions of Western civilization took place, gave great importance to development instruction, thought from a military point of view.
However, in the Renaissance era, scientific innovation was also motivated by some Academies that claimed to be in charge of promoting the study of these disciplines: the Royal Society of London or the Paris Academy of Sciences are examples of this.
In the following centuries, the evolution of science pursued an increasing dynamic. The main causes were the progressive expansions of freedom of innovation and the structuring of science in different disciplines. The birth of democracies and free political systems furthered this purpose. Examples of Scientific and Technological Discoveries.
At the same time, the methods of science have been refined and increasingly functional to researchers’ ideas, although the root is always in the creativity and imagination of new answers to questions. Examples of Scientific and Technological Discoveries.
The analysis of the history of science is a discipline in itself, and it is necessary to say that within it there is a piece that stands out among all the others: ‘ The structure of Scientific Revolutions’, by Thomas Kühn, explained what form produced the advancement of science in general.
He explained that in most of the periods, there are certain consensuses in the scientific community on some questions, but also on some ways of acting and of exploiting the conclusions reached: this he recognized as a paradigm, and is affirmed by being more successful than its competitors but once affirmed it restricts what must be observed and scrutinized.
The scientific discovery, in the words of Kühn, can occur within a single paradigm or can lead to the emergence of a new paradigm, which called Scientific Revolution: it is common that this will generate certain crises in science, and that many scholars resist change.
The following list chronologically orders some examples of scientific discoveries in the history of humanity:
|1. Number 0 (Approximately 50 AD)|
|2. The paper (200)|
|3. Chess (600)|
|4. The compass (1100)|
|5. The telescope (1608)|
|6. The Law of Gravitation (1687)|
|7. The Steam Machine (1712)|
|8. The mechanical loom (1785)|
|9. Atomic theory (1803)|
|10. Darwinian Theory on the Origin of Species (1859)|
|11. Dynamite (1867)|
|12. Sterilization method (1870)|
|13. Vaccines against rabies (1885)|
|14. Television (1926)|
|15. Aircraft (1927)|
|16. Structure of DNA (1928)|
|17. Nuclear reactor (1942)|
|18. Solar battery (1954)|
|19. Penicillin (1943)|
|20. First Cloned Living Being (1997)|
The evolution of technology is closely linked to that of science, but it refers specifically to the history of the invention of techniques and tools with a practical purpose, that is, with a function that would simplify some for people.
At the same times that science gives the kick to know what area can be explored to meet the needs, technology simplifies and brings new products for consumption but also for the optimization of production tasks.
The feedback of technological advances made that in the last decade evolution took a much more exponential and accelerated career than it had been pursuing until then. The following list shows some examples of technological advances:
|1. Remote control.|
|2. Cable television.|
|3. Microwave oven.|
|4. Digital photo camera.|
|8. Laser printers.|
|10. Digital video recorder.|
|11. Contraceptive pill.|
|12. Industrial robots.|
|13. Cell phone.|
|14. Fiber optics.|
|16. Bar code.|
|17. Battery tools.|
|18. Communications satellite.|
|19. LED technology.|
|20. Remote-controlled aerial vehicles.|