What is Science?
In general, “ science ” means any body of knowledge systematically ordered in order to describe realities and provide answers to various questions .
The evolution of science is perhaps the most significant development of the human being as a species since throughout the existence of man science progressed substantially.
Undoubtedly, the contribution made by the so-called “pre-scientific era” was a decisive starting point, without which the levels of scientific progress that we see today would never have been reached.
“Science”: a broad term
Despite the fact that a definition of science has been given, it must be said that it is permanently under discussion and is subject to constant revision, so it is by no means worth saying that it is a univocal definition.
Likewise, a huge number of debates arise daily to establish whether or not a given discipline is a science: perhaps the most important is the question of the method since from many academic sectors it is considered that only that one can be defined as scientific knowledge that was obtained from a specific methodological process.
In this way, the knowledge generated can eventually be contested. It is a conception that revalued scientific dynamics, which makes a lot of sense because a large amount of knowledge that at one point seemed absolute and complete, was refuted sometime later. This methodological requirement may be too rigorous for certain disciplines.
What are the Main Branches of Biology?
The branches of science are mainly divided into three groups: natural sciences, formal sciences, and social sciences. Each of them has specific study objects and methodologies. Some other Branches and Types of Science are Applied Sciences, Human Sciences, Exact Sciences, Empirical Sciences.
-Natural sciences: they study natural phenomena and nature, they cover all the physical aspects of reality.
-Social Sciences: they study the human factors of reality, human behavior, and societies.
-Formal sciences: they are precise, they study mathematics and logic, they are not based on experimentation but on mental abstraction and reasoning.
The branches of sciences and the scientific method
A phenomenon is observed. A hypothesis is established. The hypothesis is tested by objective and fully reproducible experiments.
If other new information that contradicts this hypothesis is discovered in the future, then it is necessary to establish a new hypothesis and follow the same steps to form a new theory that is supported by new experiments.
The different branches or areas of knowledge are usually classified into three large groups.
They are the scientific branches that study the so-called formal systems, these systems based on logic and mathematical language. For example, mathematics, information theories, or statistics.
The formal sciences do not seek to validate theories about observable phenomena in the real world, but to advance the knowledge of formal systems.
These are scientific branches in charge of the study of natural phenomena. Physics, chemistry, geology, astronomy, or biology are natural sciences.
The natural sciences, also called pure sciences, try to discover and explain the rules that govern the natural world.
Classification of Natural Sciences
There are four main groups into which the natural sciences are divided, and there are, in turn, different internal categories within each:
- Biology: Science that studies living beings, from their origin to their properties and their evolution over time. Turn has within it the categories of biochemistry, histology, physiology, genetics, zoology, botany, and microbiology.
- Chemistry: Basic science whose object of study is matters, and deals with explaining the composition, structure, and properties of it. Contains the categories are the biochemistry, the physicochemical, the petrochemical and Astrochemistry, among others.
- Physics: Science is responsible for explaining the relationships between matter and the environment, particularly with space, time, and energy. Movement is one of the central topics of interest to physics, and for this reason, it is necessary to develop theories with high mathematical content. However, this is not one of the disciplines contained by physics, as seen above. Internal disciplines of physics are thermodynamics, mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum physics.
- Geology: Science that is in charge of the study of the earth and its structure. The processes occurring in the inner rocks of our planet, the movements of the earth ‘s crust, and the structure of continents and oceans is part of its area, which also contains the geophysics, the geochemistry, the geobotánica, and paleontology.
- Astronomy: Science of the celestial bodies, including also their movements and the phenomena linked to them. Planets, stars, satellites and everything beyond the Earth’s border is its scope.
They are the scientific branches that study human behavior and organization in societies.
Fundamental sciences such as anthropology, archeology, political science, economics, sociology, public health, or theology are grouped under this category.
The formal, natural, and social sciences are the most frequent branches of science as an object of study in basic research.
The fundamental sciences also form the basis for other interdisciplinary scientific branches, often found within certain fields of applied research, which derive knowledge from other branches of fundamental sciences.
Medicine and engineering, for example, are branches of applied science that take knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, or biology.
Types of Science
- Applied Sciences
- Exact Sciences
- Human Sciences
- Empirical Sciences
- Pseudo Sciences
- Factual Sciences
This is the list of twenty sciences, beginning with two formal sciences, then nine exact sciences are indicated, and finally nine human sciences :