Haploid cells are those that have half the number of chromosomes of a diploid cell that belongs to the same organism. Diploid cells are those that have the complete chromosomal load of the species.
Haploid cells are those that have only one set of chromosomes (identified as n the number of chromosomes), that is, half the total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Reproductive cells, such as mammalian ovules and sperm, cells of the asexual stage of fungi, and those that make up some algae, contain a single set of chromosomes.
The genesis of a haploid cell can occur in two ways:
By haploid cell mitosis: The original or mother cell is haploid and has chromosomes that are duplicated and divided equally between the daughter cells.
Due to diploid cell meiosis: The original or mother cell has 2n chromosomes and will undergo two cytoplasmic divisions with a single DNA replication. This process is known as meiosis and is divided into meiosis 1 and meiosis 2.
Diploid cells are those cells that have two sets of chromosomes or twice the number of chromosomes than diploid cells (identified as 2n).
For example, in humans, diploid cells have 46 chromosomes forming a total of 23 pairs. Human sex cells have half the chromosomes, giving a total of 23 chromosomes, leaving one chromosome without its pair.
Difference between Haploid and Diploid
- Diploid cells (2n) are cells that have the normal number and composition of chromosomes of the species.
- Haploid cells are those that have only half the normal chromosome load of the other cells that make up an organism.
- Diploid cells divide by mitosis.
- Haploid cells divide through meiosis.