Carbohydrates, often known as carbohydrates or sugars, are biomolecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are a component of living organisms’ bodies, serving as structural and energy storage components. Ribose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch are examples.
They provide a rapidly available source of energy when ingested in meals (unlike fats, which also contain energy but require a longer process in the body to obtain it). Oxidation is the mechanism through which a carbohydrate molecule releases its energy.
Types of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are classified as follows based on their structure:
Monosaccharides are a type of sugar that is made up of one or more sugar molecules A single molecule is all that exists.
Disaccharides are a type of sugar that has been broken down into smaller molecules. Two monosaccharide molecules are joined together by a covalent bond to form this structure (glycosidic bond).
Oligosaccharides are a kind of sugar. It’s made up of three to nine monosaccharide molecules. Glycoproteins are formed when they are coupled to proteins.
Polysaccharides are a type of polysaccharide. Made up of ten or more monosaccharide chains. The chains can be branched or not. Structure and storage activities are performed by them in organisms.
examples of monosaccharides
- arabinose . He is not free in nature.
- Ribose . Is found in:
- Cow liver
- pork tenderloin
- unpasteurized milk
- Fructose . Is found in:
- carob beans
- glucose . It is essential for proper physical and mental functioning. Is found in:
- Dairy products
- Galactose. It is not found in its natural state.
- Mannose. In food, it is found in legumes.
- Xylose. It is difficult to digest, it is found in the following foods:
- corn husks
examples of disaccharides
- Sucrose. Composed of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose. It is the most abundant disaccharide. In food, it is found in:
- Sweet industrial drinks
- lactose . Composed of one molecule of galactose and one molecule of glucose. In food, it is found in:
- Other dairy
- Maltose . Made up of two glucose molecules. It is the least common disaccharide in nature, but it is formed industrially. In food, it is found in:
- Cellobiose . Made up of two glucose molecules. It does not exist as such in nature.
examples of oligosaccharides
- Raffinose. Is found in beet stalks
- Melicitous . Composed of one molecule of fructose and two of glucose. In food, it is found in:
Examples of polysaccharides
- starch. It is found in plants because it is how they store monosaccharides. In foods, they are found in:
- glycogen. It is stored in muscles and the liver to give energy. In food it is found in:
- Cellulose. It is a structural polysaccharide, it is found in the cell wall mainly of plants, but also of other organisms. It is what in the food we call “fiber”:
- whole grains
- Chitin. Structure similar to cellulose, but with nitrogen in its molecule, which makes it more resistant. It is used as a food stabilizer.
- Trace elements
- Branches of biochemistry
- Bioelements Vs Biomolecules