To form the molecules of chemical compounds, the atoms of the different substances or elements must combine with each other in a stable way, and this can happen in different ways by virtue of the structural characteristics that every atom has, which, as we know, consists of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Examples of Ionic Bond are provided later in the Post.
Electrons are negatively charged and remain close to the nucleus because the electromagnetic force attracts them. The closer an electron is to the nucleus, the greater the energy required to get it to release.
But not all elements are the same: some have a tendency to lose the outermost electrons of the cloud (elements with low ionization energy), while others tend to capture them (elements with high electron affinity). This happens because according to the Lewis octet rule, stability is associated with the presence of 8 electrons in the outermost shell or orbital, at least in most cases.
Read Also: Ionic Bond Vs Covalent Bond
Then, as there can be loss or gain of electrons, ions of opposite charge can be formed, and the electrostatic attraction between the ions of opposite charge causes these to join and form simple chemical compounds, in which one of the elements gave up electrons and the other received them. For this to happen and to form an ionic bond, there must be a difference or delta of electronegativity between the elements involved of at least 1.7.
The ionic bond usually occurs between a metallic and a non-metallic compound: the metal atom gives up one or more electrons and consequently forms positively charged ions (cations), and the nonmetal gains them and becomes the charged particle negatively (anion). The alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals are the elements that tend to form cations the most, and the halogens and oxygen are usually the anions.
In general, compounds that are formed by ionic bonds are solid at room temperature and high melting point, soluble in water. In solution, they are very good conductors of electricity, as they are strong electrolytes. The lattice energy of an ionic solid is what marks the attractive force between the ions of that solid.
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Examples of ionic bond
- Magnesium oxide (MgO)
- Copper sulfate (CuSO4)
- Potassium Iodide (KI)
- Zinc hydroxide (Zn (OH) 2)
- Sodium chloride (NaCl)
- Silver nitrate (AgNO3)
- Lithium Fluoride (LiF)
- Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
- Calcium nitrate (Ca (NO3) 2)
- Calcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4) 2)
- Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)
- Disodium phosphate (Na2HPO4)
- Iron sulfide (Fe2S3)
- Potassium bromide (KBr)
- Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
- Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)
- Potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
- Manganese Chloride (MnCl2)
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