Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry that is dedicated to studying living beings in their chemical composition. It is an experimental science. For example the development of fertilizers, medicines, and cosmetics.
Its main themes are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and the various molecules that makeup cells, as well as the chemical reactions they undergo. He intervenes in medicine, pharmacology, and agrochemistry, among other disciplines.
Biochemistry studies how organisms obtain energy (catabolism) and use it to create new molecules ( anabolism ). Among the processes studied are digestion, photosynthesis, chemical biological barriers, reproduction, growth, etc.
branches of biochemistry
- Structural Biochemistry. Studies the chemical structure of biological macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
- Bioorganic Chemistry. It studies compounds that have carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds, called organic compounds. These compounds are found only in living things.
- Enzymology. Enzymes are biological catalysts that allow the body to carry out chemical reactions such as protein breakdown. This science studies their behavior and their interaction with coenzymes and other substances such as metals and vitamins.
- Metabolic Biochemistry. It studies the metabolic processes (obtaining and spending energy) at the cellular level.
- Xenobiochemistry. Associated with pharmacology, it studies the metabolic behavior of substances that are not usually found in the metabolism of an organism.
- Immunology. Studies the reaction of organisms to pathogens.
- Endocrinology. Study the behavior of hormones in organisms. Hormones are substances that can be secreted by the body or obtained from the outside, which affect the functioning of different cells and systems.
- Neurochemistry. Study the chemical behavior of the nervous system.
- Chemotaxonomy. Study and classify organisms according to their differences in chemical composition.
- Chemical ecology. It studies the biochemical substances that are used by organisms to interact with each other.
- Virology. Specifically studies viruses, their classification, operation, molecular structure, and evolution. It is associated with pharmacology.
- Genetics. It studies genes, their expression, their transmission, and molecular reproduction.
- Molecular Biology. It studies biochemical processes specifically from a molecular perspective.
- Cell biology (cytology). It studies the chemistry, morphology, and physiology of the two types of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Examples of biochemistry
- Fertilizer Development. Fertilizers are substances that favor the growth of plantations. To develop them it is necessary to know the chemical needs of plants.
- Enzymatic detergents. They are cleaners that can eliminate residues of necrotic material, without producing a corrosive action on inorganic surfaces.
- Medications. The manufacture of medicines depends on the knowledge of the chemical processes of both the human body and the bacteria or viruses that affect it.
- cosmetics The chemicals used in cosmetics must be favorable to the chemistry of the body.
- Balanced food for pets. Foods are developed from the knowledge of the metabolic and nutritional needs of animals.
- Nutrition. Whatever the objective of our diet (gain or lose weight, lower blood sugar, eliminate cholesterol, etc.) its design must take into account the chemical needs of our body to function.
- The walls of the stomach are prepared to withstand digestive acids that would cause serious injury if they come into contact with parts of our body outside the digestive system.
- When we have a fever, our body is seeking to reach a temperature in which the microorganisms that harm us cannot survive.
- When our body cannot defend itself against microorganisms, antibiotics are the chemical response that prevents their reproduction and eliminates them.
- Dietary Supplements. They allow us to ingest organic or inorganic substances that our bodies need for proper functioning.
- Organic chemistry Vs Inorganic chemistry
- Anabolism Vs Catobolism
- Biomolecules examples
- Toxic Substances