Biomolecules are the molecules found in all living organisms. Biomolecules are the building blocks of all living things, regardless of their size. For instance, ketones, collagen, and DNA.
Each molecule (which makes up a biomolecule) is composed of atoms from different chemical elements. Bioelements are the chemical elements that make up biomolecules, and they are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), and phosphorus (P). Some of these bioelements will be found in each biomolecule.
Biomolecules’ primary function is to be a component of all living organisms. Biomolecules also play an important role in the structure and function of the cell.
Types of Biomolecules
Biomolecules come in a variety of different shapes and sizes.
There are three types of biomolecules:
In Organic Biomolecules
They lack a carbon-based structure, but they are required for living things to survive. Mineral salts, water (H 2 O), and gases like carbon dioxide (CO 2) are just a few examples.
Carbon and other bioelements make up their structure, but they may also contain metals like iron (Fe). They can be classed based on their chemical makeup or their biological activity.
Types of Organic Biomolecules
There are four types of Organic biomolecules that are:
- Nucleic Acid
What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are essential to a cell’s survival since they are a powerful source of energy. Carbohydrates are primarily composed of three biochemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, and/or oxygen. These biomolecules can be simple or complex, and they are classed by the number of molecular units that make up their structure in the following ways:
They just have one molecule of simple carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, such as glucose, are found in the blood of living creatures.
A disaccharide is created when two monosaccharides combine. Sucrose, for example, is found in the sugar we use every day.
A polysaccharide biomolecule is formed by the joining of three or more monosaccharides. Starch (found in potatoes) and glycogen are two examples (found in the body of living beings, mainly in muscles and the liver).
What are Lipids?
Fats Lipids act as a reserve energy source for the body, forming cell membranes. Vitamins or hormones may have a role in this. They are composed of fatty acids and alcohol, although they may also contain additional functional groups. They have extended carbon and hydrogen atom chains as a result of this. Alcohol, benzene, chloroform, and ether are the only solvents that they can dissolve in.
As a result, dissolving them in water is not conceivable. They are split into distinct groups based on their specific function:
Lipids that have an energy role
They’re found in the fat of animals. It is the distinctive adipose tissue found beneath the skin of many living beings. This lipid forms a protective and insulating barrier against the cold. Plant leaves also contain lipids, which keep them from drying up quickly.
Lipids that provide a structural purpose.
The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids (lipids with phosphate groups, PO 4 3-).
Lipids that play a role in hormone production.
They’re also known as “steroids.” Human sex hormones, for example.
Vitamin-functioning lipids The transfer of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and K is aided by these lipids.
What are Proteins?
Proteins are the building blocks of all living things. They’re biomolecules that play a variety of roles in the human body. Amino acids are biomolecules that are made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
There are a total of 20 different types of basic amino acids. Different proteins will emerge from the combination of these amino acids. Proteins are divided into groups based on their function in the following areas:
Structural Proteins are a type of protein that is found in the structure of the body. They are in charge of all living creatures’ bodies’ form, stiffness, and flexibility. Keratin and collagen are two examples of these proteins.
Proteins that regulate hormones
They control how the organism works in some ways. Take insulin, for example, which regulates glucose entrance into cells.
Proteins that aid in defense
They are responsible for attacking and defending the body against germs, bacteria, and viruses. White blood cells, particularly lymphocytes, create antibodies that combat viruses and bacteria, for example.
Proteins that transfer information
They are in charge of moving chemicals or molecules through the bloodstream. Hemoglobin, for example, transports oxygen.
Proteins that have an enzyme-like activity.
They speed up chemical reactions in the body, such as nutrition uptake by the body’s many organs. For instance, amylase breaks down glucose so that it can be easier assimilated by the body.
What are Nucleic Acids?
Nucleic acids are the building blocks of life. They are polymers made out of nucleotide units (molecules formed by a nitrogenous base, a pentose, and a phosphate group). Its major purpose is to pass on genetic information from one generation to the next. They’re also in charge of protein synthesis.
Types of Nucleic Acids
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
- RNA (ribonucleic acid)