This post includes:
- Covalent Bond Definition
- Properties of Covalent Bond
- Types of Covalent Bond
- Examples of Covalent Bond
- Much more …
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What is Covalent Bond?
Covalent bonds are the bonds that are formed between two non-metals and that can share their valence electrons forming a molecule of several atoms joined together, then they acquire the structure of a noble gas.
A covalent bond is a sort of chemical relationship that occurs between two atoms or ions and involves the sharing of electron pairs. A molecular bond is another name for a covalent link. Covalent bonds are created when two non-metallic atoms with identical or nearly equivalent electronegativity values come together.
Other chemical species, such as radicals and macromolecules, contain this type of connection. Although Irving Langmuir coined the term “covalence” in 1919 to characterize the number of electron pairs shared by surrounding atoms, the term “covalent bond” was first used in 1939. Bond pairs or shared pairs are the pairs of electrons that participate in a covalent bond.
Covalent Bond Properties
The following are the main features of covalent bonds:
- The joining of two pairs of electrons that are not metals is what defines a bond.
- The atoms that make up the bond must have the ability to gain electrons.
- Between atoms, there is a modest amount of electronegativity.
- Non-metals and non-metals combine to form them.
- They are capable of forming molecules.
- When in solid form, covalent bonds are soft.
- They are water-soluble.
- A single line is used to symbolize shared electrons.
- The nuclei of the two atoms are attracted to each electron in the common pair.
Types of Covalent Bond
There are also different types of links, such as:
Single Covalent bond
It is an electronic pair composed of an electron of the last energy level of each atom and is represented by a line.
Examples of simple covalent bond
- Hydrogen molecule (H 2 )
- Chlorine molecule (Cl 2 )
- Hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecule
- The water molecule (H 2 O)
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl) molecule
Double Covalent bond
it is composed of two shared electron pairs or two electrons that belong to the last energy level of each atom and is represented by two parallel lines.
Examples of double covalent bond
- An oxygen molecule (O 2 )
- Carbon dioxide molecule (CO 2 )
- Ethylene molecule (C 2 H 4 )
- Propylene molecule (C 3 H 6 )
Triple Covalent bond
It is formed by three electronic pairs, which means three electrons that belong to the last energy level of each atom and are represented with three parallel lines.
Examples of triple covalent bond
- Nitrogen molecule (N 2 )
- Hydrocyanic acid (HCN) molecule
- Iodoacetylene (HC 2 I) molecule
- Propyne molecule (C 3 H 4 )
- Acetonitrile (CH 3 CN) molecule
Dative or coordination covalent bond
This bond is an electronic pair shared by two atoms but both electrons are contributed by the same atom.
Covalent Bond Examples
Numerous examples of compounds or substances containing covalent bonds can be given:
- molecular nitrogen
- molecular oxygen
- Carbon dioxide