The main difference between organic and inorganic compounds is that organic compounds always contain carbon (and very often hydrogen forming Carbon-Hydrogen bonds), while most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon.
Accordingly, if the compound does not contain carbon it will be inorganic, but if it contains it can be organic or inorganic. Chemical compounds are substances formed by two or more elements interrelated, thus giving rise to an entirely new and different substance. According to the type of atoms that make up these compounds, we can speak of organic and inorganic compounds:
The inorganic compounds, however, typically do not contain carbon atoms, or hydrogen-carbon bonds (typical of hydrocarbons ), and atoms can be linked by ionic bonds (metallic and non – metallic atoms) or covalent. These substances can contain multiple elements from any source on the periodic table and are good electrical conductors.
Examples of organic compounds
- Methanol (CH 3 OH). Known as wood or methyl alcohol, the simplest alcohol that exists.
- Propanone (C 3 H 6 O). Acetone for common solvent use, flammable and transparent, with a characteristic odor.
- Acetylene (C 2 H 2 ). Also called ethene, it is colorless, lighter than air alkyne gas, highly flammable.
- Ethyl ethanoate (CH 3 -COO-C 2 H 5 ). Also known as ethyl acetate or vinegar ether, used as a solvent.
- Formol (CH 2 0). Used as a preservative of biological matter (samples, corpses), it is also known as methanol or formaldehyde.
- Glycerin (C 3 H 8 O 3 ). Glycerol or propanetriol is a substance that is an intermediate product of alcoholic fermentation and digestive lipid processing.
- Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). The basic energy unit of living beings is the monosaccharide sugar.
- Ethanol (C 2 H 6 O). Ethyl alcohol, present in alcoholic beverages, the result of the anaerobic fermentation of sugars with yeast.
- Isopropanol (C 3 H 8 O). Isopropyl alcohol, an isomer of propanol, becomes acetone when oxidized.
- Acetylsalicylic acid (C 9 H 8 O 4 ). The active compound in aspirin: analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory.
- Sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). The most common of the carbohydrates: table sugar.
- Fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). Fruit sugar maintains an isomer relationship with glucose.
- Cellulose (C 6 H 10 O 5 ). The main compound of plant beings, it serves as a structure in the plant cell wall and as an energy reserve.
- Nitroglycerin (C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 ). A powerful explosive is obtained by mixing concentrated nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and glycerin.
- Lactic acid (C 3 H 6 O 3 ). Indispensable in processes of energization of the human body in the face of low oxygen concentrations, the production of glucose via lactic fermentation.
- Benzocaine (C 9 H 11 NO 2 ). Used as a local anesthetic, although its use in infants has high toxicity side effects.
- Lidocaine (C 14 H 22 N 2 O) . Another anesthetic, widely used in dentistry and as an antiarrhythmic.
- Lactose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). Formed from galactose and glucose, it is the sugar that gives animal milk its energy load.
- Cocaine (C 17 H 21 NO 4 ). A powerful alkaloid derived from the coca plant and synthesized to produce a homonymous illegal drug.
- Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ) . Also known as the important vitamin C of citrus fruits.
It can serve you: Examples of Organic Waste
Examples of inorganic compounds
- Sodium chloride (NaCl) . The common salt of our diet.
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl). One of the most powerful acids known is one of those secreted by the stomach to digest food.
- Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). An acid reactive to water, resistant to oxidation, evaporation, and reduction, used in the soft drink industry.
- Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). One of the largest known corrosives, it is widely used in various types of industry and is produced in large quantities in the world.
- Potassium iodide (KI). This salt is widely used in photography and radiation treatment.
- Potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ). Orange salt, highly oxidizing, capable of causing fires when in contact with organic substances.
- Silver chloride (AgCl). Widely used in electrochemistry and laboratories, due to its very low solubility in water, it is a crystalline solid.
- Ammonia (NH 3 ). Also called ammonium gas, it is a colorless nitrogen-rich gas with a particularly repulsive odor.
- Cuprous sulfate (Cu 2 SO 4 ). An insoluble salt, used as a disinfectant and colorant for metal surfaces.
- Silicon oxide (SiO 2 ). Commonly called silica, it forms quartz and opal and is one of the components of sand.
- Iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ). Also known as green vitriol, melanterite or green shell, it is a blue-green salt used as a dye and as a treatment for certain anemias.
- Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ). Long used as an antacid and in the glass and cement industry, it is a very abundant substance in nature, as rocks or as shells and exoskeletons of certain animals.
- Cal (CaO). It is calcium oxide in any of its forms, widely used in construction mixtures as a binder.
- Baking soda (NaHCO 3 ). Present in fire extinguishers or in many dietary and medicinal products, it has a very alkaline pH.
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH) . Potassium soda, used in the production of soaps and other solvents.
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) . Called caustic soda or caustic soda, it is used in the paper, fabric, detergent and pipe opener industries.
- Ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) . A powerful agricultural fertilizer.
- Cobalt Silicate (CoSiO 3 ) . Used in the production of pigments (such as cobalt blue).
- Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) . Epsom salt or English salt, when adding water. It has multiple medical uses, especially muscle, or as bath salts.
- Barium chloride (BaCl 2 ) . A very toxic salt used in pigments, steel treatments, and fireworks.